News from Glynwood
My first big step into the world of climate action came in 2011. In April of that year, I was invited to join the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) leadership team responsible for producing the very first national report exploring adaptation to climate change in U.S. agriculture. As a member of the lead author team and the lead scientist on adaptation, I worked with more than 60 researchers all across the U.S. to gather, review, discuss, and report on the state of scientific knowledge about the effects of climate change on U.S. agriculture. We also reported on what we knew about how best to maintain agricultural production in a changing climate.
Set at the head of our CSA-dedicated field, Glynwood’s humble Farm Store channels the energy of the surrounding farmland and welcomes all who come by to join in.
When the wooden doors of the shed swing open, they unlock a cornerstone of what food means to us—this is how a storefront looks and feels when it is aimed at tipping the needle towards a more sustainable and equitable food system.
Glynwood farm and property has a full and dedicated team of people managing the land and infrastructure. Last month we introduced the current apprentices; this blog provides additional context for the remainder of the land management team at Glynwood.
The core group of land managers are divided into three teams—the “property,” “livestock,” and “vegetable” teams—that work together to care for a healthy landscape designed to support Glynwood’s mission. Each team focuses on the seasonal cycles of growth while also working to achieve a long-term vision of a beautiful and resilient landscape capable of sustaining the well-being of Glynwood’s staff and the communities that we serve.
One of the unique aspects of the Hudson Valley is the sheer concentration of young farmers who come to the region to work on or found small-scale, sustainable farms. Glynwood is committed to training this next generation of farmers in a variety of capacities. Our apprenticeship program is an immersive experience designed to equip farmers with the skills and knowledge necessary to manage their own farm enterprises. The Hudson Valley Farm Business Incubator assists farmers in their first five years of operation by providing customized technical assistance and offering winter workshops on topics such as farm law and crop planning. In an effort to provide learning opportunities for a larger contingent of regional farmers, Glynwood also participates in a season-long public farm tour series called Mid Hudson CRAFT.
Spring has arrived at Glynwood. It is a season of new arrivals and a time of reawakening, of returning, of birthing and emergence. As migratory birds return, morning hours on the farm are rich with busy birdsong as swollen buds on cherry, maple and magnolia promise blossoms and tender lime-green leaves in the coming weeks. Walking through Glynwood’s landscape, one can catch a noseful of warm and earthy air wafting out of the greenhouse doors or off of a field of just-tilled soil, an earful of bleating lambs and ewes, and a faceful of spring wind.
In addition to welcoming a new flock of lambs, a new brood of hens, and a new greenhouse teeming with seedlings, spring is the time when we welcome our new cohort of apprentices.
Much like some migratory birds, this season’s apprentices come to Glynwood from places near and far. They bring with them a diversity of experiences and a shared interest in a more intimate knowledge of the process of growing, raising, and harvesting food in a way that promotes the health of land, people and community.
On Friday, April 1, the Food Sovereignty Fund celebrated a first—gathering over 50 farmers, food access partners, and Accountability Council members with the goal of strengthening connections between regional farms and hunger relief efforts. This bilingual English-Spanish event was made possible by the Hudson Valley Language Justice Collective, and began to build the community we need to truly create food sovereignty in our region. We all shared a meal (a small but important step back towards communal activities!) and dove into some meaty questions—what are we doing to build food sovereignty now? And what still stands in the way?
New York City Home Bakers rejoice! Glynwood Grains & Staples and GrowNYC Wholesale are teaming up to bring the beloved Home Bakers Meetup to Strong Rope Brewery in Red Hook, Brooklyn.
During this event, bakers of all experience levels are welcome to bring their creations, swap samples with fellow local grain and flour enthusiasts, share stories and tips, and sample beers from this award-winning New York State Farm Brewery. There will be several bread professionals on hand to talk techniques, along with some special guests and vendors.
Glynwood, in collaboration with Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, is evaluating challenges and opportunities for livestock production in the Hudson Valley and adjacent regions as part of a USDA Regional Food System Partnership (RFSP) grant. From December 2021 through March 2022, a working group of representatives from Glynwood, Cornell, and Hudson Valley livestock farmers diligently worked to complete this first phase of the project, compiling and disseminating a survey to livestock producers.
Have you noticed a new face helping with your CSA pickup or at the Farm Store checkout this month? That’s Ryan Stasolla, Glynwood’s new Farm Marketing and CSA Coordinator! Ryan began working at Glynwood in March to manage our farm store operations, coordinate our CSA and nurture our partnerships with food access partners across the Hudson Valley. Ryan’s interest in this work is motivated by his thoughtful understanding of the potential for locally-sourced marketplaces to spark positive changes throughout a community.
It’s hard to believe that it’s been almost six months since I stepped into my new role as the Director of Agriculture at Glynwood. Arriving just as the season began to turn from summer to fall, me and my partner, Weogo Reed, settled into our new home on the farm and got started exploring the land, people and communities of the Hudson Highlands and beyond.
April 2022 marks one year since Glynwood welcomed June Russell to the Regional Food Programs team and formalized its work within regional grains and staples. We are honored to have established relationships with so many collaborators and partners in this first year and excited to share these details about some of the projects currently underway.
Maddie first joined Glynwood in 2013 as a Livestock Apprentice and returned as the Assistant Livestock Manager in February 2022. In her role, Maddie works closely with the Livestock Farm Manager to care for Glynwood's Animal Welfare Approved, multi-species operation. She also assists in teaching and guiding the daily work of the farm’s livestock apprentices and volunteers.
Glynwood’s Summer-Fall CSA is sold out, but rest assured: you still have a chance to sign up for a share in the Hudson Valley. Discover the bounty of vegetables, fruit, flowers, mushrooms, meat, and more that Hudson Valley farmers have to offer at the Hudson Valley CSA Coalition’s Virtual CSA Fair on Thursday, April 7 from 6-7:30 pm. Every attendee that signs up for a share through the Virtual CSA Fair will receive a unique Hudson Valley gift donated by local businesses!
Located within the Hudson-Wappinger watershed, Glynwood is water-rich. The farm benefits from a long-term average of 45 to 50 inches of rain per year compared to the national average of 38 inches per year. In addition to immediate rainfall and snowmelt, Glynwood’s water resources are drawn from two irrigation reservoirs—a 105-foot-deep agricultural well (that generally provides about 75 to 100 gallons per minute), and the 10.25 million gallon Jordan Pond reservoir (a shallow impounded pond filled by intermittent streams and surface runoff). The redundancy of water sources is more than we need at most times of the growing season, but during dry spells and drought periods, we often need to draw from multiple water sources to adequately water all of our vegetables and supply enough drinking water to the livestock across the farm’s pastures. Because of increasingly unpredictable weather patterns and extreme weather events, we cannot rely on natural watering alone for all of our agriculture needs and irrigation infrastructure plays an important role.
The invitation to spend a month at the American Academy in Rome as a Visiting Scholar presented a unique opportunity for me to experience and learn about some of the qualities of a centuries-old food system of the kind we are trying to build here in New York – highly localized, with intense regional pride, and a reliance on small, decentralized farms and traditional food products. I’ve learned much from this experience, while also realizing that food and farming professionals in both Italy and the Hudson Valley share similar concerns about the future.
As I write this, the Hudson Valley landscape is covered in ice. Last weekend we endured a snowstorm and we've seen long stretches of nighttime temperatures close to 0°F, with highs in the teens. To think that fresh vegetables can grow amidst this kind of weather is mindboggling and yet it is happening here at Glynwood — we are year-round, four-season vegetable farmers.
Before I joined the Glynwood farm team last March, I was a three-season farmer for the better part of a decade. I would spend March-November working on a farm and then set off to somewhere warmer: traveling abroad, spending time in my home state of North Carolina, or touring on my bicycle for the winter. Staying active and engaged with vegetables and the earth during the winter was a compelling part of taking the job at Glynwood. Winter farming had a mysterious lure to it and as the veil has been lifted, it has been a very interesting learning experience.
Last summer, Glynwood added two new members to the livestock team, a pair of Maremma livestock guardian dogs. Livestock guardian dogs (commonly known as “LGDs”) are specifically bred to protect their flock from predation.
Originating in the mountains of Italy, with depictions dating as far back as ancient Rome, Maremmas were bred by shepherds to protect sheep and goats. Selective breeding led to the development of coarse fur and a dense undercoat, similar to the wool fleece on a sheep. Their coat sheds in the spring and fall, keeps the dogs cool in the summer and warm in the winter, and protects them from wind, rain, and snow. This unique adaptation allows them to be full-time members of the flock they protect, living with them in all climate conditions.
The land at Glynwood has diverse and complex ecosystems, topography and history that invite creativity and thoughtfulness when honing best management practices. As a farmer with training in forestry, I continuously think about land use and management through the lens of agriculture and silviculture.
Silvopasture is a management method utilizing the ecological concept of disturbance regime within forest-gap dynamics. Practiced for millennia, silvopasture is the intentional integration of managed forest and grazing systems. Before European colonialism, land occupation, and genocide, the indigenous people of the eastern forests intentionally created small and large gaps in the forest–strategic openings creating space to grow food and encourage wild game to browse, forage and graze. European colonial occupiers practiced techniques of domesticated animal husbandry, orcharding, and coppicing that incorporated European traditional forms of silvopasture in North America and in the Hudson River Valley in particular. These practices are still used today and though there is renewed interest among many farmers, they are not widespread in our modern farming and food system. Silvopasture is a tool with the potential to help answer questions about how we can produce food and other goods in a resilient system as we face increasingly dire climate change implications.
The past two growing seasons were unlike any other. Challenges including changing consumer patterns, supply chain disruptions, climate volatility, and worker shortages forced farmers to repeatedly adapt to new norms. This constant state of flux presents the opportunity for reflection, learning, collaboration, and new planning models for future growing seasons.
The Glynwood Center for Regional Food and Farming, in collaboration with Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, has received a USDA Regional Food System Partnership (RFSP) grant to evaluate challenges and opportunities for livestock production in the Hudson Valley and adjacent regions. This project builds upon the collective experience of Glynwood and the Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences in serving the livestock industry, and relies on a partnership with the Cornell Cooperative Extension Livestock Program Work Team and the Hudson Valley Livestock Producers Group, formed by Glynwood in 2020.
As the saying goes, “you are what you eat.” If you eat animal products, you eat the forage eaten by the animal, the soil, and the sun. This underscores the importance of the hay quality that we feed to our livestock. Forage (food for ruminants) is on my and most livestock farmers’ minds at all times. Last month’s piece about hay storage and handling gives a short history of hay production. This post dives into the nuances of hay and its nutritional value to ruminants.
Glynwood’s Hudson Valley Farm Business Incubator provides customized technical assistance to new and growth stage farm entrepreneurs. Our Farmer Training staff works with each Incubator participant through a tailored approach reflecting individual farms’ needs and goals, and organizes formal training in critical skill areas such as business planning and financial management, social and ecological sustainability and marketing.
This month, we’re excited to introduce our newest cohort of Incubator farms: Sweet Freedom Farm and Angel Family Farm. These farms attended Glynwood’s 2022 Winter Intensive series, and will benefit from comprehensive technical assistance throughout the next two growing seasons.
I began as Glynwood’s new Director of Development last month, and am grateful for the community, teamwork, and vitality that is unique here. It’s invigorating and inspiring. Meeting with the Glynwood team, talking to donors and stakeholders, and walking the property, I’m absorbing as much as I can about the work we do, how we get it done, and what our goals are for the future.
Glynwood welcomed two new members to our Board of Directors, Kanchan Koya and Dan Shannon, earlier this month. Both Kanchan and Dan are incredibly thoughtful and supportive members of the Glynwood community.
There are myriad farming conferences offered throughout the colder months, catering to anyone from small organic growers to ranchers to berry producers. Online farming courses and market gardening intensives abound as well, allowing farmers to process the material in their own time. Glynwood supplements these broader learning opportunities with a series of virtual and in-person Winter Intensives. Geared towards the specific needs and interests of Hudson Valley farmers, the series ties knowledge sharing with community building, allowing young farmers to build trust and understanding simultaneously.
Lauren joined Glynwood in December 2021 as Farmer Training Program Manager. In her work, Lauren supports a variety of farmer training efforts including Glynwood's Apprentice Program, Hudson Valley Farm Business Incubator, and Mid Hudson Collaborative Regional Alliance for Farmer Training (MH CRAFT). She is energized by Glynwood's mission and dedicated to ensuring that the Hudson Valley continues to be a place where farming thrives.
During the summer, our propagation greenhouse at Glynwood is filled to the brim with plant seedlings growing and waiting their turn to be transplanted into our fields. In the winter, it has traditionally sat empty for a couple of months, but this winter it started calling to us: "Yoo hoo, opportunity! Microgreens and shoots!" Our ears perked up at the mention of these tasty treats and we have been busy researching, trialing and developing this new venture, with the hopeful result of microgreens and shoots topping many of our hearty meals this winter.
Hay for livestock may not be as cut and dry as you think. Making hay in the summer requires great skill and care so that it can then be stored in quality condition through the winter. Throughout the Northeast, including on our small farm at Glynwood, a great deal of the winter is spent thinking about when, where and how to deliver hay to the animals.
Last summer, in the midst of the grazing season here at Glynwood, we began a process to renovate one of our large pastures. We documented the process in the first few installments of this “Notes from the Field” blog series throughout July (here), August (here) and September (here). In November, we transitioned our livestock from grazing on pasture to eating hay. Even though the pastures are now quieter and our cattle and sheep are eating hay, the process of storing and distributing feed to the livestock still requires careful consideration and a lot of work.
The New York Cider Association needs your help to pass some important cider legislation! Founded by Glynwood in 2015, the New York Cider Association is an independent trade association that has acted as a crucial collective voice and organizing body for apple growers and cider makers across the state.
Cideries in California, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington (the very states focused on competing directly with the New York Cider market!) can ship directly to New York consumers. Currently, however, New York’s very own cider makers and growers are not able to compete equally and enjoy the same opportunity. Unlike New York wine, New York cider cannot be shipped directly to consumers. This creates a huge loss in revenue, tax dollars, and fair-market competition for our growers and producers who are working diligently to keep New York State as a leader in the rapidly growing cider industry.
The 2022 Regional Food for Health Speaker Series, beginning January 6th, will include a stellar group of physicians, farmers, activists, practice managers, research scientists, and chefs. These practitioners and leaders will shed light on how our health benefits from a closer connection to farms, and ways that the medical and agricultural communities can collaborate for better health, equity, and justice. In a world that has become increasingly specialized and siloed, we don’t often create these opportunities to examine the connections between seemingly disparate systems and areas of expertise. But in uncovering these connections, we can illuminate pathways to deeper positive impact.
The American Academy in Rome (AAR) invited Glynwood President Kathleen Finlay to be a visiting scholar for the month of January 2022 as a leading thinker in regional food systems. She will spend time during her residency at AAR exploring the historical and contemporary regional food system surrounding Rome to identify specific approaches and interventions that foster or hinder a healthy, just and sustainable supply of local food.
We are thrilled to announce that Jennifer Becker joined the Glynwood team as Director of Development in November 2021. Her 20+ year career spans all areas of fundraising, with expertise in institutional giving and funding strategy development. Most recently, Jennifer worked as Director of Foundation Relations at The New York Botanical Garden, and previously was Manager of Institutional Giving at Wave Hill. Jennifer has additional professional experience from Stepping Stones Museum for Children; Queens Library; Brooklyn Public Library; The South Street Seaport Museum; and Intrepid Sea, Air, and Space Museum.
Our winter store has jumped around the property a few times in recent years, but has now happily landed for the second year in a row in the small stone building adjacent to Perkins House. Cozy and sporting a fireplace, the winter farm store on a fall evening is a small respite from the cold, warm and inviting. With more Glynwood-grown vegetables, Glynwood-grazed meats, and local goods in stock than ever before, you’ll want to make the trip up the driveway. We look forward to welcoming you to Glynwood and introducing you to all the delicious crops, meats, and local goods that winter has to offer here in the Hudson Valley. See you soon!
This year we’re proud to be raising our own Glynwood-grazed heritage breed Bourbon Red turkeys for Thanksgiving. Raising turkeys can be tricky business, and this year was no exception. As farmers, we do everything we can to protect the livestock that are under our care and give them a good life, but raising livestock on a pasture-based system carries with it certain challenges and risks that can’t be avoided. After losing some birds earlier in the year due to various factors, we bought in more poults. Therefore, we have some turkeys that are a little younger and smaller than the rest of the flock.
Across the region, farms are prepping for the colder months ahead: winter roots are coming out of the ground and into root cellars; animals are returning to the barns and acclimating to hay diets from fresh pasture; and farmers are spending more and more time on their computers, crunching numbers from the past season and readjusting crop plan spreadsheets for 2022.
With this season wrap-up comes the close of the 2021 Food Sovereignty Fund. For the past six months, seventeen regional farms led by BIPOC, LGTBQ+ and/or women farmers have been growing food for fifteen community food access programs across the Hudson Valley and in New York City.
Barnyard, overripe melon, green apple, plastic, mint. These descriptors may not have much in common, but they were all uniquely identified as flavors or aromas during a cider sensory analysis that Glynwood organized at Angry Orchard last August.
This sensory gathering was a long-anticipated opportunity to taste the first products of the Cider Project’s fermentation trials. Featuring fruit from trees donated and planted by the Cider Project in 2017, the trials are an ongoing effort to identify unique cider flavors, structures, and even terroir by fermenting juice from distinct orchards and apple varieties (separately, but under uniform conditions), then comparing and contrasting the ciders in a controlled tasting environment.
If you’ve visited Glynwood in person, you’ve likely enjoyed the view when you take the entrance to the farm via the Bigs Woods Trailhead. I’ve always enjoyed looking down the hill at the tiny version of our campus and feeling that I am on-set for the bucolic version of Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood. Won’t you see my compost?
Along the drive down to campus you’ll spot our compost pad where we manage several ‘windrows’ of compost. We make compost at Glynwood every season, and spread it on our pastures and vegetable fields to naturally replenish and fertilize the soil. There are many steps to produce quality compost.
Rhythms change across the farm throughout the year. In a grazing-based system, the fall and spring bring striking changes for the livestock and their caretakers. The most significant difference is how and where the livestock eat. This shift presents both challenges and welcome relief.
This season we had four ruminant groups on Glynwood’s 70 acres of primary pasture: ewes, weaned lambs, cow-calf pairs, and cattle growing-stock (or “yearlings”). We pay close attention to soil conditions and pasture growth to determine when the animals move from one paddock to the next. During late fall, the ruminants at Glynwood shift from grazing forage that is photosynthesizing and growing to eating stored and stockpiled feed.
The newly formed Grains and Staples Program at Glynwood seeks to build markets for emerging staples crops and promote production of regionally appropriate grains and staples, with a special emphasis on ensuring these production systems adopt climate adaptation strategies. This is an outward looking project drawing from the history of and resources from the Hudson Valley region and beyond to prepare for a future with many unknowns for food production and distribution. Right now, the Grains program and the farm team have established a small experimental grains garden for a closer look at several different kinds of grains that might be grown on the Glynwood Farm in the future.
For many farmers, the autumn equinox signals a wind-down of sorts. Fewer hours of daylight means more time is spent storing roots, prepping beds and barns for the winter, and looking at crop planning spreadsheets, and far less time is dedicated to the classic summer stressors of harvesting, rotating pastures, weeding, and managing pests. But for apple growers, the fall season is the busiest of the year. Especially during a bumper crop such as this year’s, apple growers and cider makers are working nonstop from August through October or even November. Whether getting fruit off the trees and into storage, pressing apples for cider (both fresh, sweet cider and its fermented, alcoholic counterpart), welcoming droves of apple pickers on the weekends, or monitoring the forecast for potential frosts, growers lean into the demanding months with the understanding that the literal fruits of their labor will be enjoyed well into the following year.
Last weekend, we invited back apprentice alums for Homecoming, an opportunity to visit the farm and celebrate the end of the season along with our staff and board members. Over 50 people gathered on this land that has been transformative for many new-entry farmers in the Hudson Valley. While many are still farming, both in the Hudson Valley and elsewhere, others are pursuing Ph.D. research and working in areas such as climate change advocacy and farm policy. Having so many past apprentices back on the farm was a potent reminder of the lives and careers that have been shaped by living and learning on this land.
There has never been a better time to celebrate NY cider during Cider Week! Directly tied to New York’s agricultural cash crop of apples, cider in New York has seen an unprecedented growth explosion of over 450% in the past ten years and now has a $1.7 billion total economic impact to the NY state economy. With over 120 producers making over 5 million gallons of cider every year, New York continues to lead the country in its number of cider producers.
It’s that time of year again! Yes, breeding season. Every fall, the livestock team gears up to breed our cattle and sheep. While we have a ram to naturally service our ewes, this season we have decided to use artificial insemination to breed our cows.
Artificial insemination (AI) is the process of breeding cattle using frozen semen. We decided to use AI as our primary breeding method this season because it gives us more flexibility and control over the herd’s genetic makeup. Through AI, we will be able to introduce increased genetic diversity into next season’s calf crop without having to keep multiple bulls on the farm.
For me, the fall equinox on a working farm is laden with the ebbs and flows of reflection, melancholy, envisioning and joy. It is a suspended moment of balance to revel in what the farm is and might be. Here, at Glynwood, my mind and body are very much fixed on the land itself and how the people, livestock and wildlife are entwined.
The summer provided far from “normal” weather patterns, though weather extremes are becoming more typical due to the climate crisis. Tropical systems Henri and Ida did not cause much damage on most of Glynwood’s farm, but they did disrupt the schedule of fieldwork for Middle Field. This pasture, more so than others at Glynwood, stays saturated long after rain events. The dominant soil type, Paxton, is classified as well-drained, but water does tend to perch on the densic substrata of this soil. Middle Field also has pockets of fairly severe compaction which we will address with keylining or master-keying across the farm in future seasons. Given the wet soil conditions at the end of August continuing into the first two weeks of September, it was only last week that I felt comfortable, still with trepidation, about putting the tractor and disk harrow on the field to terminate the warm season annual planting. My concern was that I would risk doing more damage than good by adding to the compaction issues.
Though fall is here, the growing season is far from over! With the last tomatoes and the first of the winter storage crops coming in, this is the time of year when it’s easy to make every meal from fresh, local produce and it’s been great to see our community coming out to shop at the Glynwood Farm Store to pick up our produce, meat and other local goods to help them do exactly that. If you have not yet come to the Farm Store this season, please do stop by in the coming weeks as the last tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, winter squash, potatoes, onions, garlic and vibrant greens come in from the fields.
This summer, we were lucky enough to exchange farm visits and apprentice learning opportunities with DIG Acres, a farm operation managed by fast casual restaurant chain DIG Inn and located at the Chester Ag Center. DIG Acres has long been a farmer training partner of ours; several of Glynwood’s Farm Business Incubator participants have simultaneously participated in DIG’s Incubator program (which includes farmland and shared equipment), and farm manager Larry Tse has been a Mid Hudson CRAFT organizer for several years. However, this was the first year in which we have coordinated a complementary apprentice exchange. We were delighted with the results.
For as long as humans have existed, we have been using plants to heal ourselves. What began as an instinctive search for medicines to relieve our ailments and diseases became numerous traditional systems of medicine developed by people over millennia. In many places around the world, herbal medicine is still the norm—for example up to 80% of people on the African continent use traditional herbal medicine as their primary health care. However, in the U.S., herbalism falls under the umbrella of “alternative” or “complementary” medicine, and we have been taught to be both skeptical of its efficacy and fearful of its power.
We’re in the height of the growing season, and the farmers participating in Glynwood’s Food Sovereignty Fund are providing a bounty of fresh, delicious, nutritious, and culturally appropriate foods to their community based partners. From the northern end of Columbia County to the Bronx, these community partners are distributing the food at no cost to folks who are facing food insecurity. While there is still a lot of growing and harvesting left to go this season, we wanted to provide a snapshot of the impact this innovative program has had so far.
Last month I introduced you to the decision to “renovate” the seven-acre Middle Field pasture here at Glynwood, and to the methods we are using to implement this overall improvement. We terminated the existing perennial stand of grasses, legumes, and forbs via moldboard plow and disk harrow in May and seeded to a warm-season annual plant mix in mid-June. This was the first step in a process to remove unwanted species like Russian knapweed and yellow nutsedge, and to ultimately replace the existing stand with more desirable perennial pasture species for our ruminants.
Glynwood has been the host of many weddings, photoshoots and social gatherings over the years. From the bucolic rolling hills of the farm to the lakefront boathouse, our events experience the magic that this land has to offer. However, the wedding and event industry is one that is not always kind on the land, producing waste, high impact and carbon emissions as a result of its efforts.